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What Type of DC Motor is Suitable for a Large Conveyor?

A direct current (DC) motor in a large conveyor system serves the purpose of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. This device takes electrical power via the direct current and converts the energy into the mechanical rotation.

Using DC motors in conveyor systems is quite a new and unique way of moving products down the line. It is mostly used in motorized rollers and 24V DC. This article gives information regarding the best DC motors for a large conveyor system.

How Does a DC Motor Work?

Small electric motor on a white workshop table.
As aforementioned, a DC motor works by converting direct current into mechanical energy. These motors come in different types and sizes and power from small appliances to large mechanisms like conveyor systems.

A DC motor has two main elements – stator and armature. As the word might suggest, the stator is the stationary element of a motor, as the armature rotates. The stator creates the rotating magnetic field, which causes the armature to move.

A simple DC motor makes use of stationary magnets and a coil that has a current running to generate enough electromagnetic field. The core of the motor is wrapped with windings of wire to help concentrate the magnetic field. These windings are connected to a rotary electrical switch, otherwise referred to as a commutator, which uses the current provided by the windings. The commutator energizes the armature coils, which create a rotating force called torque.

If the coils are turned on and off, a magnetic field is built, which interacts with the magnetic fields of the stationary magnets, making it rotate. Such principles of the DC motors allow them to be able to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy through the rotating movement.

Types of DC Motors

  • DC Series Motor

A DC series motor usually has its field windings connected with the armature in series. The winding has lesser turns of copper strip or large wire that can carry the entire load of the motor. Since the windings are of low resistance, a large current can be used up to produce a high torque on starting. This is a great benefit for high starting loads like a crane, traction, and many other heavy applications. The load determines the speed of the series motor. Therefore, when the entire load is flowing via the circuit is reduced, the speed will be increased. At times, the motor speed could increase to an above-recommended maximum. It is because of this reason that you should not connect the series motor to its load with a belt.

  • DC Shunt Motor

In this kind of motor, the field winding is connected with the armature in parallel. This winding uses many copper wire turns and since it is connected to the DC field supply, it will have a constant field current. The motor will run up to a rated speed but will not be heavily affected by a change in the load. The torque will be quite little than a same-sized motor but if it is not needed, then a shunt motor with a constant speed will be preferred for this application. Dc shunt motors can be implemented for a wide array of applications like wire extrusion.

The Best DC Motor for a Large Conveyor – DC Compound Motors

The best DC motor for a large conveyor system would be a DC compound motor. This is because the majority of the field in this motor is wound field. However, it will have several turns of series on top of it. The shunt will be connected across the field supply while the series turns connected with the armature in the series. This mechanism provides a motor that has both series and shunt characteristics.

The starting torque for this motor is usually higher than that of a shunt motor but like that of a series motor. The speed changes with the load and the amount depends on the percentage of field space distributed to the series winding. This series field can be made to increase or decrease with the load speed. Applications for such motors do vary but are usually for large applications like conveyors.

Some type of DC compound motors can be implemented if the supply comes from batteries that have a wide range of volts. In such a case, the armature and field will have a similar voltage applied to implement the compound winding. This helps maintain the speed at an acceptable range.

A DC motor in a large conveyor system is used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Since conveyor systems are quite complex, they go well with DC compound motors, as they have both series and shunt characteristics, making them quite effective for moving large loads.

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